Manual removal of a rare cystic calculus concurrent with recurrent hemorrhagic cystitis in an Arabian mare: A case report


  • Mohamed El-Sherif lecturer of internal medicine
  • Karim Attia Veterinary surgeon
  • Noha Salem Professor of internal medicine
  • Adel Kubesy Professor of internal medicine
  • Alaa Jaheen Lecturer of internal medicine



Cystic urolith, hemorrhagic cystitis, mare, manual removal


A nine-year-old Arabian mare was presented with symptoms of frequent hematuria, dysuria, pollakiuria and urine dribbling. This report describes a manual removal procedure of a cystic urolith in an Arabian mare. A complete blood count showed a slight reduction in hemoglobin. Renal function tests showed high normal ranges in BUN. The urine sample was very cloudy and had a specific gravity of (1.019) with alkaline pH. The chemical examination showed high hemoglobin concentration with glucose traces. The microscopic examination showed a high number of pus cells and red blood cells with few numbers of rounded epithelial cells. Bacterial culture revealed Klebsiella spp and as a result of the sensitivity test, sensitivity to amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, amikacin and gentamicin was determined. Cystoscopy revealed a large cystic urolith cranioventrally on the left wall of the urinary bladder. The apex vesicae was inflamed, with blood sludge. The definitive diagnosis was chronic hemorrhagic cystitis caused by a large cystic urolith. As a result, it was concluded that the removal of relatively large calculi through the urethra in the mare, while providing some protection to the bladder neck and urethral mucosa, has been effective with minimal complications.






Case Reports (peer review)